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Contents

Introduction

Measurement and Calculation Fundamentals
        Percentage of Error

Patient Compliance Rate

Dose Calculations
        Calibration of Droppers
        Number of Doses in a specified amount
        Drug Dosage based on Age
        Drug Dosage based on Body Weight
        Drug Dosage based on Body Surface Area

Altering Formulas

Volume Vs Density Vs Specific Gravity
        Mass / Volume / Density
        Specific Gravity for Liquids
        Spcific Gravity for Solids
                solids insoluble in water and heavier than water
                solids soluble in water and heavier than water
                solids insoluble in water and lighter than water
                granulated solids insoluble in water and heavier than water
        Specific Volume

Percentage Calculations
        Percentage Weight-in-Volume
        Percentage Volume-in-Volume
        Percentage Weight-in-Weight
        Percentage in Compendial Standards
        Ratio Strength Vs Percentage Strength
        Preperation based on Ratio Strength
        Conversions of concentration to mg/mL
        Clinical laboratory test values
        Ratio Strength, % Strength, and Parts per million (ppm)
        ppm Usuage

Dilution and Concentration
        Percentage Strength determination on Dilution/Concentration
        Ratio Strength on Dilution/Concentration
        Stock Solutions
                Method (i)
                Method (ii)
                Method (iii)
                Diluent Calculation
        Alcohol Dilution
        Acid Dilution
        Dilution and Concentration of Solids
                Method (i)
                Method (ii)
                Method (iii)
                Method (iv)
                Method (v)
        Alligation medial - Percentage strength of mixture
        Alligation Alternate
        Specific gravity of Mixture

Isotonic Solutions & Electrolyte Solutions
        Calculation for Isotnoic Solution preparation
        Sodium Chloride equivalent of a substance
        Converting milliequivalents per unit volume to weight per unit volume and vice versa
                milliequivalents/mL to mg/mL
                Milligram percent to milliequivalents per Litre
                Weight to milliequivalents
        To provide specified milliequivalent level
        Millimoles Vs Milligram
        Osmolarity

Constituted Solutions and Admixtures
        Concentration after reconstitution (oral solution / suspension)
        Concentration after reconstitution (parenterals)
        Parenteral Nutrition
                Caloric Requirement Calculation
                Daily quantity requirement / Caloric supply
        I V Fluid delivery over specified period

Drug Availability and Pharmacokinetics
        Amount of Bioavailable drug from a dosage plan
        Bioequivalent amounts of two bio-inequivalent products
        Plasma concentration of unbound drug (free drug)
        Apparent volume of distribution
        Total amount of drug content
        Elimination rate constant & Elimination half-life
        Creatinine Clearance and Dosage Calculation
                Ideal Body Weight
                Creatinine clearance rate
                Adjusting Creatinine clearance rate
                Loading dose & Maintenance dose based on Ideal Body Weight

Radioactive Pharmaceuticals
        Half-Lives of Some Radioisotopes
        Half-Life Vs Disintegration Constant
        Conversion Equivalents

Intersystem Conversions
        Conversion Equivalents in Length
        Conversant Equivalents in Volume
        Conversion Equivalents of Weights
        Apothecaries' fluid measure
        Apothecaries' measure of weight
        Avoirdupois measure of weight

Pharmacoeconomic Calculations
        Cost difference between drugs
        Discounts
                Net Cost and a series of discounts
                Single Discount Equivalent
                Net Cost with Single Discount Equivalent
        Calculation of Selling Price
                Gross Profit on Cost
                Gross Profit on Selling Price
        Prescription Pricing
                Percent Markup
                Percent Markup plus a Minimum Professional Fee
                Professional Fee

Thermometry and Proof Strength
        Centigrade Vs Fahrenheit
        Proof Strength
                Proof Gallons Vs Wine Gallons
                Tax Calculation

Solubility Ratios
        Percentage strength of saturated solution with given solubility
        Solubility of the substance with known specific gravity of the solution
        Solubility fo the substance

Primary Emulsion Calculation

HLB Systems
        HLB Values of some Surfactants
        "Required HLB" Values of some Ingredients
        HLB of a blend of Emulsifiers
        Required HLB for the oil phase
        Relative amounts of emulsifiers to obtain required HLB

Buffer Solutions
        pKa value of a weak acid with known dissociation constant
        pH value of a salt/acid buffer system
        pH value of a base/salt buffer system
        Molar ratio of salt/acid required to prepare desired pH
        Components of a buffer solution to yield a specific volume
        Change in pH with addition of an acid or base

Chemical Problems
        Gram Molecular Weight and Percentage Composition
        Chemically equivalent quantities